Steve J. Dimond, with the assistance of Vladimir Gurianov
YFull team has completed analysis of NextGen sequencing results provided by YFull interpretation service adding an additional four levels to the Amerindian portion of the Q haplogroup experimental tree of descent.
New tree structure:
……….Q-Y4291 : Y4276, Y4291, Y4308, Y4325, Y6163
……………….. Q-YP1462 :
YP1462 (16769105GT), YP1463 (17353568AG), YP1464 (17424573CT), YP1465 (21777658CT), YP1466 (21826794TG), YP1504 (6847000GA)
Subclade Q-Y4273 is defined by a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in descendants of Algonquian speaking Amerindians at the time of European contact.
The Little Ice Age, (LIA) 1430 CE, brought tribal competition, migratory shifts, and conflict resulting in the tribal confederacies of the 1500s. In the years following contact Algonquian and Iroquoian societies collapsed as bands were displaced by European colonial expansion. Some cultures dwindled to extinction while others, those that survived colonial wars and disease, became refugees adopted into reconstructed tribes. Y-chromosome genetics cannot define or identify tribal affiliations. Y chromosome genetics can be used to create a phylogeny or tree of descent that in some cases can, to some extent, be associated with cultural groups.
Y4273 subclade is likely rooted in Northeastern Archaic cultural region, either the Maritime or Lake Forest Culture (8k to 3k ybp). It is possible Y4273 emerged with the Susquehanna tradition (3700 ybp) which expanded east to the mid Atlantic and suddenly expanded northward to the Gulf of Maine somewhat replacing the Maritime tradition with Susquehanna culture adaptations.
Subclade levels below Q-Y4273 are beginning to be revealed though NextGen sequencing taking resolution to 300 ybp.
It is estimated that Q-Y4273 formed 12100 ybp and the MRCA is 4400 ybp.
- A set of SNPs (Esk2 by Karmin et al., 2015) has been identified in a Yupik (Eskimo) of Novoye Chaplino in the Far Eastern District of Russia. The indigenous Siberian Yupik people inhabit the coast of the Chukotka Peninsula and St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.
This discovery creates a subclade sandwiched between CTS12273 and Y4273 labeled Y4291. This means the Yupik individual and Algonquian subclade Y4273 members descend from the same ancient and distinct branch of the Q haplogoup tree. Age yet to be estimated.